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Was ist cricket

was ist cricket

Juli Beim Cricket dreht sich alles um das Duell zwischen dem Werfer (Bowler) und dem Schlagmann (Batsman). Der Bowler versucht, den Batsman. Juli Cricket [ ] in Deutschland auch Kricket, in den Anfängen auch „Thorball“ genannt, ist eine Mannschaftssportart, die vor allem in den Ländern. Cricket spielen. Cricket ist eines der beliebtesten Spiele in Asien (und auch auf dem Subkontinent), in Großbritannien, Australien und Neu Seeland sowie in. In a one-day game, a bouncer which goes over the batsman's head can be called a wide by the umpire. Cricket Behavior and Neurobiology. Cricket characters feature in the Walt Beste Spielothek in Feldkirchen-Westerham finden animated movies Pinocchiowhere Jiminy Cricket becomes the title character's Beste Spielothek in Schuttern findenand in Mulanwhere Cri-kee is carried in a cage as a symbol of luck, in the Asian manner. If the bowler bowls too many bouncers the umpire may stop him from bowling. Retrieved from " https: Tettigoniidae katydids, bush-crickets or long-horned grasshoppers. Aufgrund der Gründung eines konkurrenzierendes Verbandes wurde diese Mitgliedschaft jedoch ausgesetzt, bis der Verband durch eine Mitgliedschaft bei Modeste modeste anthony modeste Olympic als offizieller Cricket-Dachverband anerkannt ist. Verfehlt dieser den Ball und Play Majestic Forest Slot Game Online | OVO Casino Ball zerstört das Wicket, ist der Batsman ausgeschieden, genauso wenn er den Ball trifft und dieser dann direkt aus der Luft von einem Marco huck live ticker der Feldmannschaft gefangen wird. More Stories Beste Spielothek in Ramoldsreuth finden Cricket. Gryllidae Laicharting[2]. After bowling over the wicket, the bowler might try bowling around the wicket.

Was Ist Cricket Video

1st ever hat trick in international one day cricket history...... Daraufhin wurde das Spiel für England gewertet. Schaffe eine Ausrüstung an. Bewaffnete Männer feuerten in Lahore mit Raketenwerfern und Maschinengewehren auf den Bus der Mannschaft — mindestens sieben Menschen starben danach, u. Die Schlagmannschaft hat Beste Spielothek in Gabisreuth finden Spieler die Schläger auf dem Spielfeld. An den beiden Enden dieser Pitch sind jeweils drei Stäbe Stumps aufgestellt, auf denen lose je zwei kleinere Querstäbe Bails liegen. Die Werfer können keine fortlaufenden Overs jess dukes 21 day fix, aber sie können nach mindestens einem Ball von einem anderen Spieler "zurückrotieren". Um dieses zu verhindern steht vor jedem der Wickets ein Batsman der Schlagmannschaft und wehrt den Ball mit einem Schläger ab.

Was ist cricket -

Der Bowler läuft vom gegenüberliegenden Ende des Pitches an und wirft bowlt den Ball in einer vorgegebenen Wurftechnik in Richtung des Batsman. Ein Spiel ist dabei in zwei oder vier Spielabschnitte Innings geteilt, in denen jede Mannschaft abwechselnd jeweils ein Innings lang Schlag- oder Feldmannschaft ist. Die mindeste Ausstattung besteht aus 6 Stäben und 4 Querhölzern, zwei Cricketschlägern und einem Ball. Sobald der Stürmer den Ball getroffen hat, können er und der Nicht-Stürmer wählen, von einem Ende des Spielfelds zu anderen laufen und die Plätze zu tauschen. Cricket ist in zahlreichen Ländern des Commonwealth eine der wichtigsten Sportarten. Ein Cricket-Spiel kann nur einige Stunden aber auch mehrere Tage andauern, darüber sollte man sich im Klaren sein. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Durch die Nutzung dieser Website erklären Sie sich mit den Nutzungsbedingungen und der Datenschutzrichtlinie einverstanden. Ein Spiel kann ein paar Stunden dauern, sich aber auch über Tage hinziehen. Quellen und Zitate http: Bei der Feldmannschaft trägt nur der Wicket Keeper , der immer hinter dem Schlagmann und dessen Wicket steht, eine besondere Ausrüstung. Ziel ist es, für die kämpfende Mannschaft möglichst viele Runs über den Platz zu machen, nachdem der Ball getroffen wurde. Auf internationaler Ebene werden die drei Formen zumeist in Form von Touren zwischen zwei Mannschaften und Turnieren mit mehreren Mannschaften absolviert. Bowler sind meist spezialisiert. Der andere Schläger, der an der langen Seite von dem Spielfeld neben dem Schläger steht, wird als Nicht-Stürmer bezeichnet. Der erstmalige Abbruch eines internationalen Cricket-Spiels in der langjährigen Geschichte der Sportart sorgte für Anfeindungen zwischen Australien und Pakistan. Der Wurfarm darf, sobald er die Höhe der Schulter erreicht hat, nicht mehr gestreckt werden, was in der Praxis fast immer dazu führt, dass der Arm in diesem Moment schon voll gestreckt ist und bleibt.

Later on this game was shown benevolence by aristocrats, and now has the stature of being England's national game. After a century now, cricket stands in the international arena, with a place of its own.

Cricket involves two teams with 11 players on each side. The captain who wins the toss decides whether his team bats or bowls first. If they bat first , their aim is to score a lot of runs and make sure the other team does not reach that score.

In TEST cricket game goes on for 5 days, with each team batting twice - if time permits. And the other team tries to outscore them within the same number of balls.

The game of cricket mainly revolves around batsmen. Crowds love the batsmen, especially when they wallop the ball all over the ground.

Batsmen are the ones who whip up hysteria in the crowd, everybody loves them, they are the Don Juan's of the game. Many batsmen are good, but only a few are great.

Their style, their flair, talent is unique. To each his own - if I can quote this famous phrase. He bowls the ball overarm with a straight arm.

If he bends his arm, the other teams are given one run and he has to bowl the ball again. An 'over' is six balls meaning he bowls six times.

Then another player becomes the bowler for the next over, and bowls from the other end, and so on. The same bowler cannot bowl two overs one after the other.

The batsman is trying to defend the wicket from getting hit with the ball. He does this with a bat. When he hits the ball with his bat, he may run toward the other wicket.

To score a run, the two batsmen must both run from their wicket to the other wicket, as many times as they can, before they can be run out.

Being run out is explained below. If the ball leaves the field after being hit without bouncing, six runs are scored.

If the ball rolls or bounces out, whether or not the batter hit it, it counts as four runs. The way this rule is applied is complicated; this is just the general idea.

If the batsmen cannot finish the run in time, and the ball hits the wicket, the batsman nearer to the wicket that is hit is out: When a batsman is out, another comes onto the field to take his place.

The innings is over when ten wickets are taken i. After this, the team which was the 'fielding' team becomes the 'batting' team.

They now have to score more runs than the other team managed to score. If they score more runs before ten wickets are taken, they win. If they do not, the other team wins.

In a one-day game, each side has one innings, and innings are limited to a certain number of overs. In longer formats each side has two innings, and there is no specific limit to the number of overs in an innings.

Cricket is popular in many countries, mostly in Commonwealth countries. The countries where cricket is most popular compete in international matches games between countries that last up to 5 days, which are called Test matches.

The West Indies are a group of Caribbean countries that play together as a team. Several other countries have more junior status.

The test match idea was invented by teams from England and Australia in the 19th century. Ireland and Afghanistan are the new teams which can play Test cricket.

Cricket is also played in Kenya , Canada , Bermuda , Scotland , Holland and Namibia; the national teams of those countries can play one-day international matches, but do not play test matches.

Pakistan is not able to play international cricket at home at present for security reasons. A cricket field is where cricket is played.

It is circular or oval -shaped grassy ground. There are no fixed dimensions for the field. Test matches are the top international matches played between countries.

Tests sind wiederum meist in eine Serie von zwei bis sechs Tests eingebettet, so dass die entsprechenden Duelle sich über mehrere Wochen hinziehen können. Wenn der Ball vorher den Boden berührt, gibt es nur vier Runs. Die Sportart wird vor allem in den Ländern des Commonwealth als Sommersport betrieben und ist in einigen Ländern auch Nationalsport. Der Bowler wird durch die anderen Feldspieler unterstützt, die den Ball so schnell wie möglich wieder zurückbringen müssen. Gegen Ende dieses Jahrhunderts wurde es zu einer organisierten Sportart die vermutlich auch die ersten Profis auf diesem Gebiet hervorbrachteda nachweislich im Jahr ein great cricket match mit 11 Spielern pro Mannschaft in Sussex abgehalten wurde. Schafft es die neu de login Mannschaft, erfurt casino Ball zu fangen, bevor er den Boden berührt, ist der Schlagmann raus. Jedes Mal, wenn der Werfer den Ball wirft, wobei es egal ist, ob er von dem Stürmer getroffen wird oder nicht, wird ein Wurf gezählt. Die Schlagleute besetzen ihre Position und stellen sich an ihrer Schlaglinie auf. Dieses Ergebnis spielgeld im casino sehr selten. Gegen Ende dieses Jahrhunderts wurde es zu einer organisierten Sportart fußball bundesliga deutschland vermutlich auch die ersten Profis auf diesem Gebiet hervorbrachteda nachweislich im Jahr ein great cricket match mit 11 Spielern pro Mannschaft in Sussex abgehalten wurde. Beim Cricket werden, wie auch beim Baseball spezielle Ausdrücke verwendet, um jede Sektion von Beste Spielothek in Feldkirchen-Westerham finden Spiel zu beschreiben. Northern light casino 10 January They are also wette barcelona to feed carnivorous pets and zoo animals. The countries where cricket is most popular compete in international matches games between countries that last up to 5 days, which are called Test matches. Cricket never caught on in Canadadespite efforts by an imperial-minded elite to promote the game as a way of identifying with the British Empire. Cylindrachetidae sandgropers Beste Spielothek in Schleinhof finden Tridactylidae pygmy mole crickets. As the Beste Spielothek in Seewes finden was the only free Beste Spielothek in Feldkirchen-Westerham finden available to Beste Spielothek in Lilach finden lower classes, cricket's popularity may have waned during the Commonwealth. Heute gibt es zwölf Verbände, die als Vollmitglieder des International Cricket Councils anerkannt sind und in dessen Ländern Cricket eine hohe Aufmerksamkeit erfährt, da es die Nationalmannschaften dieser Verbände sind, die an den wichtigsten Wettbewerben des Sports teilnehmen und jeweils Profiligen unterhalten. Alle diese oben genannten Punkte werden nicht boks klitschko heute Schlagmann gutgeschrieben, sondern in der jeweiligen Kategorie unter Extras vermerkt. Möglich ist auch ein durch den Schiedsrichter zuerkannter Sieg wegen Spielverweigerung der gegnerischen Mannschaft, ein Sieg durch Aufgabe des Gegners oder ein Sieg durch Beste Spielothek in Kippenhausen finden. With freedom of the press having been granted incricket for the first time could be reported in the newspapers. How to get on these lists? Der Ursprung von Cricket in Deutschland lag seinerzeit in Berlin. Allen departs for Also heartening to see us bowl as a unit. History of cricket to and History of cricket —

The female may mate on several occasions with different males. Most crickets lay their eggs in the soil or inside the stems of plants, and to do this, female crickets have a long, needle-like or sabre-like egg-laying organ called an ovipositor.

Some ground-dwelling species have dispensed with this, either depositing their eggs in an underground chamber or pushing them into the wall of a burrow.

Crickets are hemimetabolic insects, whose lifecycle consists of an egg stage, a larval or nymph stage that increasingly resembles the adult form as the nymph grows, and an adult stage.

The egg hatches into a nymph about the size of a fruit fly. This passes through about 10 larval stages, and with each successive moult , it becomes more like an adult.

After the final moult, the genitalia and wings are fully developed, but a period of maturation is needed before the cricket is ready to breed.

Some species of cricket are polyandrous. In Gryllus bimaculatus , the females select and mate with multiple viable sperm donors, preferring novel mates.

Fertilization bias depends on the control of sperm transport to the sperm storage organs. The inhibition of sperm storage by female crickets can act as a form of cryptic female choice to avoid the severe negative effects of inbreeding.

Crickets have many natural enemies and are subject to various pathogens and parasites. They are eaten by large numbers of vertebrate and invertebrate predators and their hard parts are often found during the examination of animal intestines.

The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae attacks and kills crickets and has been used as the basis of control in pest populations.

The diseases may spread more rapidly if the crickets become cannibalistic and eat the corpses. Red parasitic mites sometimes attach themselves to the dorsal region of crickets and may greatly affect them.

Other wasps in the family Scelionidae are egg parasitoids, seeking out batches of eggs laid by crickets in plant tissues in which to insert their eggs.

The fly Ormia ochracea has very acute hearing and targets calling male crickets. It locates its prey by ear and then lays its eggs nearby.

The developing larvae burrow inside any crickets with which they come in contact and in the course of a week or so, devour what remains of the host before pupating.

A trade-off exists for the male between attracting females and being parasitized. The phylogenetic relationships of the Gryllidae, summarized by Darryl Gwynne in from his own work using mainly anatomical characteristics and that of earlier authors, [a] are shown in the following cladogram , with the Orthoptera divided into two main groups, Ensifera crickets sensu lato and Caelifera grasshoppers.

Fossil Ensifera are found from the late Carboniferous period Mya onwards, [30] [31] and the true crickets, Gryllidae, from the Triassic period to Mya.

Cladogram after Gwynne, Tettigonioidea katydids, bush crickets, weta. Most ensiferan families were also found to be monophyletic, and the superfamily Gryllacridoidea was found to include Stenopelmatidae, Anostostomatidae, Gryllacrididae and Lezina.

Schizodactylidae and Grylloidea were shown to be sister taxa, and Rhaphidophoridae and Tettigoniidae were found to be more closely related to Grylloidea than had previously been thought.

The authors stated that "a high degree of conflict exists between the molecular and morphological data, possibly indicating that much homoplasy is present in Ensifera, particularly in acoustic structures.

More than species of Gryllidae true crickets are known. The folklore and mythology surrounding crickets is extensive. However, another type of cricket that is less noisy forebodes illness or death.

Crickets feature as major characters in novels and children's books. Charles Dickens 's novella The Cricket on the Hearth , divided into sections called "Chirps", tells the story of a cricket which chirps on the hearth and acts as a guardian angel to a family.

Souvenirs entomologiques , a book written by the French entomologist Jean-Henri Fabre , devotes a whole chapter to the cricket, discussing its construction of a burrow and its song-making.

The account is mainly of the field cricket, but also mentions the Italian cricket. Crickets have from time to time appeared in poetry.

William Wordsworth 's poem The Cottager to Her Infant includes the couplet "The kitten sleeps upon the hearth, The crickets long have ceased their mirth".

Seaton begins "House cricket And yet how his mournful song moves us. Out in the grass his cry was a tremble, But now, he trills beneath our bed, to share his sorrow.

Crickets are kept as pets and are considered good luck in some countries; in China , they are sometimes kept in cages or in hollowed-out gourds specially created in novel shapes.

Cricket fighting is a traditional Chinese pastime that dates back to the Tang dynasty — Originally an indulgence of emperors, cricket fighting later became popular among commoners.

Crickets forced to fly for a short while will afterwards fight for two to three times longer than they otherwise would. In the southern part of Asia including Cambodia , Laos , Thailand and Vietnam , crickets are commonly eaten as a snack, prepared by deep frying the soaked and cleaned insects.

Crickets are also reared as food for carnivorous zoo animals, laboratory animals, and pets. Cricket characters feature in the Walt Disney animated movies Pinocchio , where Jiminy Cricket becomes the title character's conscience , and in Mulan , where Cri-kee is carried in a cage as a symbol of luck, in the Asian manner.

The Crickets was the name of Buddy Holly 's rock and roll band; [59] Holly's home town baseball team in the s was called the Lubbock Crickets.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the sport, see Cricket. For other uses, see Cricket disambiguation. Academy of Natural Sciences.

Cricket Behavior and Neurobiology. Bugs in the System: Insects and Their Impact on Human Affairs. Acheta domesticus and Teleogryllus oceanicus ".

Fly phonotaxis to cricket song". Archived from the original on Juvenile Hormones and Juvenoids: Modeling Biological Effects and Environmental Fate.

Archived from the original on 27 May Retrieved 15 May Journal of Horticulture and Practical Gardening, Volume 37 , p.

Retrieved 14 May An Introduction to Animal Behaviour. Journal of Evolutionary Biology. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society.

Fly Phonotaxis to Cricket Song". Retrieved 12 May Journal of Orthoptera Research. Crickets, katydids and weta".

Retrieved 7 May Orthoptera using three ribosomal loci, with implications for the evolution of acoustic communication".

Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. Folk Beliefs of Barbados. The Minor Writings of Charles Dickens. Le Avventure di Pinocchio.

The Cricket in Times Square. Retrieved 9 May The Educational Paperback Association. Archived from the original on April 23, Retrieved 10 May The Oxford Handbook of Molecular Psychology.

Retrieved 2 June Food and Agriculture Organization United Nations. Retrieved 1 April House cricket small-scale farming.

Ecological implications of minilivestock: Guide to Breeding Feeder Crickets. Retrieved 8 May As Crickets finally get their due, a glimpse into past".

Retrieved 21 May Gryllidae crickets Gryllotalpidae mole crickets Mogoplistidae Myrmecophilidae ant crickets. Rhaphidophoridae cave, camel and spider crickets; cave wetas.

Schizodactylidae dune crickets or splay-footed crickets. Anostostomatidae wetas, king crickets Cooloolidae Cooloola monster and relatives Gryllacrididae leaf-rolling crickets Stenopelmatidae Jerusalem crickets.

Tettigoniidae katydids, bush-crickets or long-horned grasshoppers. Acrididae grasshoppers, locusts Dericorythidae Lathiceridae Lentulidae Lithidiidae Ommexechidae Pamphagidae toad grasshoppers Pamphagodidae synonym Charilaidae Pyrgacrididae Romaleidae lubber grasshoppers Tristiridae.

Chorotypidae Episactidae Eumastacidae monkey grasshoppers or matchstick grasshoppers Euschmidtiidae Mastacideidae Morabidae Proscopiidae Thericleidae.

Tetrigidae grouse locusts, pygmy locusts or groundhoppers. In , the Duke of Richmond and Alan Brodick drew up Articles of Agreement to determine the code of practice in a particular game and this became a common feature, especially around payment of stake money and distributing the winnings given the importance of gambling.

In , the Laws of Cricket were codified for the first time and then amended in , when innovations such as lbw, middle stump and maximum bat width were added.

These laws stated that "the principals shall choose from amongst the gentlemen present two umpires who shall absolutely decide all disputes".

MCC immediately became the custodian of the Laws and has made periodic revisions and recodifications subsequently. The game continued to spread throughout England and, in , Yorkshire is first mentioned as a venue.

The first famous clubs were London and Dartford in the early 18th century. London played its matches on the Artillery Ground , which still exists.

Others followed, particularly Slindon in Sussex which was backed by the Duke of Richmond and featured the star player Richard Newland.

But far and away the most famous of the early clubs was Hambledon in Hampshire. It started as a parish organisation that first achieved prominence in The club itself was founded in the s and was well patronised to the extent that it was the focal point of the game for about thirty years until the formation of MCC and the opening of Lord's Cricket Ground in Hambledon produced several outstanding players including the master batsman John Small and the first great fast bowler Thomas Brett.

Their most notable opponent was the Chertsey and Surrey bowler Edward "Lumpy" Stevens , who is believed to have been the main proponent of the flighted delivery.

It was in answer to the flighted, or pitched, delivery that the straight bat was introduced. The old "hockey stick" style of bat was only really effective against the ball being trundled or skimmed along the ground.

Cricket faced its first real crisis during the 18th century when major matches virtually ceased during the Seven Years' War.

This was largely due to shortage of players and lack of investment. But the game survived and the "Hambledon Era" proper began in the mids.

Cricket faced another major crisis at the beginning of the 19th century when a cessation of major matches occurred during the culminating period of the Napoleonic Wars.

Again, the causes were shortage of players and lack of investment. On 17 June , on the eve of the Battle of Waterloo British soldiers played a cricket match in the Bois de la Cambre park in Brussels.

Ever since the park area where that match took place has been called La Pelouse des Anglais the Englishmen's lawn. MCC was itself the centre of controversy in the Regency period, largely on account of the enmity between Lord Frederick Beauclerk and George Osbaldeston.

In , their intrigues and jealousies exploded into a match-fixing scandal with the top player William Lambert being banned from playing at Lord's Cricket Ground for life.

Gambling scandals in cricket have been going on since the 17th century. In the s, cricket faced a major crisis of its own making as the campaign to allow roundarm bowling gathered pace.

The game also underwent a fundamental change of organisation with the formation for the first time of county clubs.

All the modern county clubs, starting with Sussex in , were founded during the 19th century. No sooner had the first county clubs established themselves than they faced what amounted to "player action" as William Clarke created the travelling All-England Eleven in Though a commercial venture, this team did much to popularise the game in districts which had never previously been visited by high-class cricketers.

Other similar teams were created and this vogue lasted for about thirty years. But the counties and MCC prevailed. The growth of cricket in the mid and late 19th century was assisted by the development of the railway network.

For the first time, teams from a long distance apart could play one other without a prohibitively time-consuming journey. Spectators could travel longer distances to matches, increasing the size of crowds.

Army units around the Empire had time on their hands, and encouraged the locals so they could have some entertaining competition.

Most of the Empire embraced cricket, with the exception of Canada. In , another bowling revolution resulted in the legalisation of overarm and in the same year Wisden Cricketers' Almanack was first published.

Grace began his long and influential career at this time, his feats doing much to increase cricket's popularity.

He introduced technical innovations which revolutionised the game, particularly in batting. The first ever international cricket game was between the US and Canada in In , a team of leading English professionals set off to North America on the first-ever overseas tour and, in , the first English team toured Australia.

Between May and October , a team of Australian Aborigines toured England in what was the first Australian cricket team to travel overseas. In , an England touring team in Australia played two matches against full Australian XIs that are now regarded as the inaugural Test matches.

The following year, the Australians toured England for the first time and the success of this tour ensured a popular demand for similar ventures in future.

No Tests were played in but more soon followed and, at The Oval in , the Australian victory in a tense finish gave rise to The Ashes. South Africa became the third Test nation in A significant development in domestic cricket occurred in when the official County Championship was constituted in England.

This organisational initiative has been repeated in other countries. Australia established the Sheffield Shield in — The period from to the outbreak of the First World War has become one of nostalgia, ostensibly because the teams played cricket according to "the spirit of the game", but more realistically because it was a peacetime period that was shattered by the First World War.

Fry , Ranjitsinhji and Victor Trumper. Cricket started with four balls per over. In the four balls per over was replaced by a five balls per over and then this was changed to the current six balls per over in Subsequently, some countries experimented with eight balls per over.

In , the number of balls per over was changed from six to eight in Australia only. In the eight balls per over was extended to New Zealand and in to South Africa.

In England, the eight balls per over was adopted experimentally for the season; the intention was to continue the experiment in , but first-class cricket was suspended for the Second World War and when it resumed, English cricket reverted to the six ball over.

The Laws of Cricket allowed six or eight balls depending on the conditions of play. When the Imperial Cricket Conference as it was originally called was founded in , only England, Australia and South Africa were members.

The international game grew with several ICC Affiliate Members being appointed and, in the last quarter of the 20th century, three of those became full members: Sri Lanka , Zimbabwe and Bangladesh They were followed in the early 21st century by Ireland and Afghanistan both Test cricket remained the sport's highest level of standard throughout the 20th century but it had its problems, notably in the infamous " Bodyline Series" of —33 when Douglas Jardine 's England used so-called "leg theory" to try and neutralise the run-scoring brilliance of Australia's Don Bradman.

The greatest crisis to hit international cricket was brought about by apartheid , the South African policy of racial segregation.

The situation began to crystallise after when South Africa left the Commonwealth of Nations and so, under the rules of the day, its cricket board had to leave the International Cricket Conference ICC.

Cricket's opposition to apartheid intensified in with the cancellation of England's tour to South Africa by the South African authorities, due to the inclusion of "coloured" cricketer Basil D'Oliveira in the England team.

In , the ICC members voted to suspend South Africa indefinitely from international cricket competition. Starved of top-level competition for its best players, the South African Cricket Board began funding so-called "rebel tours", offering large sums of money for international players to form teams and tour South Africa.

The ICC's response was to blacklist any rebel players who agreed to tour South Africa, banning them from officially sanctioned international cricket.

As players were poorly remunerated during the s, several accepted the offer to tour South Africa, particularly players getting towards the end of their careers for which a blacklisting would have little effect.

The rebel tours continued into the s but then progress was made in South African politics and it became clear that apartheid was ending. South Africa, now a "Rainbow Nation" under Nelson Mandela , was welcomed back into international sport in The money problems of top cricketers were also the root cause of another cricketing crisis that arose in when the Australian media magnate Kerry Packer fell out with the Australian Cricket Board over TV rights.

Taking advantage of the low remuneration paid to players, Packer retaliated by signing several of the best players in the world to a privately run cricket league outside the structure of international cricket.

World Series Cricket hired some of the banned South African players and allowed them to show off their skills in an international arena against other world-class players.

The schism lasted only until and the "rebel" players were allowed back into established international cricket, though many found that their national teams had moved on without them.

Long-term results of World Series Cricket have included the introduction of significantly higher player salaries and innovations such as coloured kit and night games.

In the s, English county teams began playing a version of cricket with games of only one innings each and a maximum number of overs per innings.

Starting in as a knockout competition only, limited-overs cricket grew in popularity and, in , a national league was created which consequently caused a reduction in the number of matches in the County Championship.

Although many "traditional" cricket fans objected to the shorter form of the game, limited-overs cricket did have the advantage of delivering a result to spectators within a single day; it did improve cricket's appeal to younger or busier people; and it did prove commercially successful.

The first limited-overs international match took place at Melbourne Cricket Ground in as a time-filler after a Test match had been abandoned because of heavy rain on the opening days.

It was tried simply as an experiment and to give the players some exercise, but turned out to be immensely popular.

The International Cricket Council reacted to this development by organising the first Cricket World Cup in England in , with all the Test-playing nations taking part.

Limited-overs cricket increased television ratings for cricket coverage. Innovative techniques introduced in coverage of limited-over matches were soon adopted for Test coverage.

The innovations included presentation of in-depth statistics and graphical analysis, placing miniature cameras in the stumps, multiple usage of cameras to provide shots from several locations around the ground, high-speed photography and computer graphics technology enabling television viewers to study the course of a delivery and help them understand an umpire's decision.

In , the use of a third umpire to adjudicate run-out appeals with television replays was introduced in the Test series between South Africa and India.

The third umpire's duties have subsequently expanded to include decisions on other aspects of play such as stumpings, catches and boundaries.

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